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Working of the Computer System

Working of the Computer System



As of now, we know that computer works in the IPO cycle to convert the raw data into useful information. It has mainly four functions to perform:

1. Input: Accepts data and instructions.

2. Processing: Manipulates data as per instructions.

3. Output: Produces desired output / information.

4. Storage: Stores data, instructions and information.




The basic structure of the computer system consists of various components to perform these operations.

During the first stage, it reads the data and instructions using input device and stores these into the main memory of the system, which is processed by ALU during the second stage. The results produced by the ALU are stored back into the memory unit. During the third stage, results are received on the output unit. The data flow in the computer system is controlled by the CU with the help of control signals sent by it to the various components of the computer system. In addition to these, a computer also has storage devices to store data and Instructions.


• Input Unit

Data and instruction are entered in the computer systems with the help of input unit, which act like a link between user and computer. Computer uses different types of input units, like, keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone, etc. depending on the type of data or the format of instructions to be given to it.





• Processing Unit

Data in the computer is processed by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) which is also known as the brain of the computer. It mainly comprises of two units ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit) and CU (Control Unit). All types of data processing are carried out by the ALU whereas CU helps to control the flow of data in the system from one part to another.


• Output Unit

Once the data is processed, the users receive the results on an output unit. The information stored in the binary form inside the computer is converted into the user readable form before it appears on the output unit. Some commonly used output devices are monitor, printer, speakers, plotter, etc.





• Storage Unit

Storage unit is also known as the memory unit where data and information are stored temporarily in binary form. This is the main memory of the system which is like a storage brain of the computer. It interacts directly with the CPU to provide the required data and instructions and to get back the processed information.

It also interacts with the external memory devices for storing the information permanently and to retrieve the stored information in it. For example, RAM, hard disk, Pen drive, DVD, Blu-ray disc, SD Card, SSD etc.




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